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They may not be suitable for everyone, so please ensure that you fully understand the risks involved. Halifax home prices, as measured by the Teranet-National Bank House Price Index , declined 3.6% from July to August 2022, the third consecutive monthly decline. Halifax posted the largest year-over-year gain in resale home prices among the cities included in the national index. Specific Police Performance QuestionsQuestionSourceThe next questions deal with your perceptions about the work that is being carried out by your local police force. Where possible, a method of factor analysis should be applied to group multiple concepts into factors from which questions can be designed. The concepts of “satisfaction,” “confidence,” and “trust” are interrelated, but distinct.

Dependent variables such as perceived police prejudice, police effectiveness and level of respect for police were measured against independent variables, such as fear of crime and previous contact with police, and control variables, such as age, gender and household income. The authors concluded that generalization about the relationship among these variables is limited, based on sampling size, and that more research would be required. Direct observations of social behavior or certain phenomenon is a research method that is used widely in criminology. For example, social disorder was observed by researchers in Chicago, where occurrences of the phenomenon were recorded on camera, coded, and analyzed . In police performance research, Mastrofski et al recorded and analyzed encounters between police officers and individuals to evaluate the behavior of police officers.

Even a quick overview of the questions reveals that most of the questions that are supposed to measure similar concepts have different wording of the questions and the categorization, as well as different scales for responses (i.e., four- versus five-point scales). There are many examples of specific performance questions that are being asked of police in contemporary public opinion surveys in Canada and the Western World . All examples, to a certain degree, measure police performance in the seven dimension of police work. Unfortunately, research in the area of validity and reliability of public opinion questions on police performance is lacking . It is only in the last two decades that researchers have begun looking into more specific police performance measures through public opinion surveys.

Nevertheless, it is evident that measuring police performance using the traditional measures alone is not sufficient. To measure the police’s ability to arrest criminals only would be to completely disregard the other important work done by the police. The multi-dimensional nature of police’s work requires a multi-dimensional approach to the measurement of their performance. Researchers have thus resorted to indirect measures of police performance such as surveys, direct observations, and situational studies and independent testing.


These seven dimensions of police work can be used when setting up a framework to measure the performance of the police . There is not one single performance measure that can assess all of the dimensions of police work at the same time; neither is there one perfect measure that can assess a single dimension of police work . The measuring instrument needs to be chosen depending on the dimension that needs to be measured. Chow’s study, which focussed on the perceptions of police by adolescents, recommended more research on a wider population beyond adolescents in one Canadian city. It was further recommended that more variables, such as “neighbourhood quality” and fear of crime, be included and a longitudinal design be adapted to ascertain causality between positive views of the police and citizen cooperation with the police. Interviews or focus groups might also qualitatively explore factors affecting the public’s opinion of the police .

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Easy to understand fixed odds financial betting with controlled risk trading on Forex, Stocks, Indices and Commodities. And how satisfied are you with the job the City is doing in providing this program or service? This time, our scale is very satisfied, somewhat satisfied, not very satisfied, or not at all satisfied. When turning concepts or factors into measurable indicators in a form of a question, use appropriate methods to test the questions for validity and reliability. Designing new questions should involve a panel of experts and/or stakeholders, as well as extensive revisions. Software like SQP can be used to test the questions for validity and reliability.

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This constitutes the only source of public opinion police performance metrics that is comparable across time and place in Canada. Questions asked on surveys of municipal police tend to be unstandardized and inconsistent, with varying response category thus making them incomparable across time and place. Other than the six questions on the GSS, the majority of municipal police services commission their own annual or bi-annual public opinion community surveys that include numerous general and specific police performance questions. Questions asked on surveys on multiple municipal police forces in Canada were reviewed at the time of writing this paper and can be viewed in the Appendix.

Such a project could involve testing the questions with SQP software for validity and reliability and referring them back to a panel of experts for further revisions. Once established, the questions could then be tested in a pilot study, the results of which could be thoroughly analysed for non-response items, the extent of scalability, the structure of factors, correlations, etc. The results of the analysis could then be referred back to a panel of experts for final revisions, following which the final questions could be constructed. Trust carries an important function of decreasing complexity in a society in that by placing trust in individuals or institutions, people’s decision-making processes and the ensuing actions become much simpler . If someone, for example, has trust that the police ensure safety in public places, it would make it easier to take a stroll at night. An individual’s decision to trust something or someone is based on both past experience in a similar situation and perceived dangers of accepting the situation .

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Neither was the goal of the work to assess the views of the general public, but rather that of a group of law enforcement experts and representatives of various levels of government. Nevertheless, his work is an important contribution to the pool of knowledge of police performance measured through public opinion. The factors identified in the analysis could potentially form a solid basis for the construction of questions that could be posed to the general public on public opinion surveys.

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It is not meant to be exhaustive, but to provide the reader with the idea on wording and categorization used by the polls. In some instances, the exact categorization of response items is not publically available. Another important notion that is frequently featured in the wording of public opinion questions on satisfaction with police is that of “trust” of, or in, one’s police. While there is no agreement among social scientists on a common definition of trust, some prominent thinkers, like Niklas Luhman, have attempted to operationalize the concept, making it practically applicable in social research.

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They combined the four backgrounds with a purpose to test Mastrofski’s six-dimensional model of the service aspects of policing, resulting in 27 indicators of service quality of, and satisfaction with, the policeFootnote 6. The survey was then administered through mail to a small suburban community in Virginia, U.S. A total of 374 questionnaires was sent out, and 138 were returned completed. A method of confirmatory https://broker-review.org/ factor analysis was applied to the data with a goal of determining whether Mastrofski’s six dimensions were supported by unique factors; results indicated that they were not. Maguire and Johnson speculated that the unique factors were not supported for three reasons. First, the community where the questionnaires were administered was fairly well-off and homogenous, with low rates of crime and disorder.

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Although this methodological limitation is a recurrent issue in the field of public opinion research, its effects might be amplified with the more serious nature of the topic of confidence or trust in the police. Respondents might provide opinions that are not a true reflection of their real opinion when they are “pressured” to respond. One of city index review the ways suggested in the literature to remedy this limitation is to replace the standard “no opinion” response option with a softer, more inviting “…or haven’t you thought about this recently? Another option is to introduce a screening question enquiring how much, and to what extent, the respondent has thought lately about police performance.

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The trouble with using the clearance rate as a measurement of performance is that it is prone to definition and measurement errors, making cross-comparisons difficult (Maguire, 2003; Riedel and Jarvis, 1999). For example, smaller communities may have a lower crime rate, which means police officers have fewer opportunities to solve crimes. On an individual basis, these officers would not fare well in statistical comparisons with their counterparts serving higher crime communities since their clearance rates would naturally be lower. Further, this measurement is less meaningful if it cannot be replicated or put into the context of other police services.

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Yet to other members of a community, it may seem unjust that individuals are locked up for a long time for actions that they may commit in future. It should further be noted that modern-day policing strategies may combat crime without necessarily calling offenders to account, through reducing criminal opportunities or disrupting criminal enterprises. An example of such a strategy includes preventative policing where police educate the community to lock their cars and homes or not drive under the influence of drugs or alcohol, which in turn, reduces crime and victimization but does not necessarily result in additional arrests. Measurement of police performance has been attempted since the establishment of the institution of modern policing in the mid-nineteenth century .

A large number of specific police performance questions are already being asked in numerous public opinion surveys. However, the validity and reliability of these questions, for the most part, have not been tested and are of questionable value. Moreover, the existing questions are not standardized, making them impossible to compare across time and place. In Canada, for example, only two police jurisdictions are asking the same questions that are asked on GSS, making them comparable to each other and to the national average, as well as across time periods.

Based on what you have heard or your own experience how successful do you think the police are at preventing crimes in where violence is used or threatened? Choose your answer from this card, where 0 is extremely unsuccessful and 10 is extremely successful. Use softer wording such as “…or haven’t you thought about this recently” instead of “no opinion” and offer it as a category instead of not mentioning it and coding respondent’s comments.